PlanksEncyclopedia

Planks<i>Encyclopedia</i>

  • Plates from the Encyclopedia. Chapter "Stationery", volume V, plate X: "Stationery, vat to be worked"

    GOUSSIER Louis-Jacques (1722 - 1799)

  • Plates from the Encyclopedia. Chapter "Stationery", volume V, plate X: "Stationery, the room".

    GOUSSIER Louis-Jacques (1722 - 1799)

To close

Title: Plates from the Encyclopedia. Chapter "Stationery", volume V, plate X: "Stationery, vat to be worked"

Author : GOUSSIER Louis-Jacques (1722 - 1799)

Creation date : 1767

Date shown:

Dimensions: Height 0 - Width 0

Storage place: Institute Library website

Contact copyright: © Photo RMN-Grand Palais (Institut de France) - Gérard Blot

Picture reference: 11-523179 / FolioM6

Plates from the Encyclopedia. Chapter "Stationery", volume V, plate X: "Stationery, vat to be worked"

© Photo RMN-Grand Palais (Institut de France) - Gérard Blot

To close

Title: Plates from the Encyclopedia. Chapter "Stationery", volume V, plate X: "Stationery, the room".

Author : GOUSSIER Louis-Jacques (1722 - 1799)

Creation date : 1767

Date shown:

Dimensions: Height 0 - Width 0

Storage place: Institute Library website

Contact copyright: © Photo RMN-Grand Palais (Institut de France) - Gérard Blot

Picture reference: 11-523180 / FolioM6

Plates from the Encyclopedia. Chapter "Stationery", volume V, plate X: "Stationery, the room".

© Photo RMN-Grand Palais (Institut de France) - Gérard Blot

Publication date: February 2013

Historical context

Composed of some 60,000 articles, the seventeen volumes of texts of theEncyclopedia are accompanied by eleven volumes of plates. Some are taken directly from theEncyclopedia in English by Chambers who was at the origin of the encyclopedic project of Diderot and Alembert; others come from annual volumes of The History and Memories of the Academy of Sciences. But more systematically, they are for the most part taken from the collection of drawings and engravings assembled over half a century by the Academy of Sciences for its own. Description of Arts and Crafts.

These procedures fall under the editorial practices of the time, which oscillate between plagiarism and plagiarism. However, if the prints recovered by unscrupulous engravers served as a basis for future descriptions, the plates were also reworked according to new technical knowledge or the discourse that one wanted to "bring to light". The whole of this engraved corpus, carefully checked in the workshops and factories, constitutes a precious visual testimony on the technical gestures of the workers, the operation of the workshops and especially the machines then in use.

Image Analysis

In these two plates (X and XIII) from the chapter "Stationery" (volume V), Louis-Jacques Goussier (1722-1799), in a traditional way, appears in an upper vignette a workshop with its anonymous workers, men and women, immersed in their labor. The lower part of the board, in a sort of magnification of the focal length, focuses on representing the technical details of the machinery used.

Plate X thus shows the workshop where one "opens", that is to say, works with paper. We can distinguish the opener (Fig. 1), the lifter (Fig. 2) and the stake or easel (Fig. 3), some of the workers involved in the production of paper. This vignette is accompanied by an elevation view and a plan of the press and the tub they are using.

Plate XIII shows a paper maker peeling the paper (Fig. 1), another smoothing it (Fig. 2), a very young girl folding it (Fig. 3), a counting machine assembling it ( Fig. 4) and finally the salleran which presses it (Fig. 5). The bottom of the board represents a mechanical press in elevation and in plan.

Interpretation

Louis-Jacques Goussier was the main architect of the volumes of illustrations of theEncyclopedia, providing over 900 boards out of the 2,885 that make up the set. Trained in mathematics education, self-taught draftsman, Goussier conducts a real survey in workshops and factories to ensure that his drawings are faithful to reality, which will earn him a mention in the Preliminary speech at theEncyclopedia by d'Alembert who mentions his knowledge and intelligence "in all parts of Mathematics & Physics, and to whom this Book has many other obligations".

These plates essentially stage the production itself, and the workers represented are there only to "figure" a gesture or an often unique action. Nothing evokes their deplorable living and working conditions: men and women are impeccably dressed, the workshops are clear, orderly, conducive to concentration and serene production. Utopian but technically realistic, these plates illustrate above all the manufacturing and artisanal manufacturing processes in a desire to encourage the progress and development of the mechanical and useful arts. Produced with great precision, the sectional plans and elevations fully participate in this fascination for the arts and sciences specific to the designers of this monument of knowledge from the 18th century.e century.

  • printing house
  • absolute monarchy
  • writers
  • Lights
  • Diderot (Denis)
  • D’Alembert (Jean le Rond)

Bibliography

· Jacques PROUST, "The image of the people at work in the plates of the Encyclopedia", in Images of the people in the 18th century, Paris, A. Colin, 1973.

· The plates of the Encyclopédie by Diderot and d'Alembert as seen by Roland Barthes, catalog of the exhibition at the Musée de Pontoise, Paris, Association Les Amis de Jeanne et Otto Freundlich, 1989.

· Jean-Louis LIBOIS, "Scenography of the Encyclopedia boards", in The Encyclopedia and its readings, Caen, Éditions de l'Ecole Normale, 1987.

To cite this article

Pascal DUPUY, "Planches de l 'Encyclopedia »


Video: BEST PLANK WORKOUT FOR SMALLER WAIST, FLAT ABS u0026 FULL BODY FAT BURN! 10 Variations